What Are The 10 Most Painful Bone Fractures

Broken Bone

The 10 Most Painful Bone Fractures In Humans A bone fracture is a break or cracks in the bone. The bone density cannot withstand the force applied and fractured to release the pressure. Fractures result from a wide range of accidental, intentional, or traumatic impacts to the body. In people with osteoporosis, a gentle cough or sneeze is enough to crack ribs and vertebrae without undue force or trauma. Any bone fracture can cause pain and restrict the range of motion in the body part injured. Ironically, hairline fractures can go unrecognized in some bones and heal on their own, with the person unaware there was a crack or minor fracture. The area just felt sore and a bit swollen and bruised, but it didn’t give them any undue pain that led them to suspect the bone was broken.  Fortunately, orthopaedic surgeons specialise in bone fractures. They can treat you if you suffer a bone fracture that will not heal naturally, or if it did heal naturally, would do so at a weird angle, causing life-long adverse issues for the person. Consider taking a basic First Aid course that teaches you how to recognise and First Aid someone with a bone fracture. Test your current First Aid knowledge with a quick fun FACE quiz. Not all fractures are equal in pain, damage, or nature. Sometimes the placement of the break, and the way it fractures the bone can be the difference between a minor inconvenience and major trauma. Read on to discover the top 10 worst bone fractures in humans to live with and manage. 1. Femur The femur is the longest and strongest of all bones in the human body and is where new platelet cells are created to replace old and dead blood cells. A femur fracture that is not the result of a traumatic accident like a motor vehicle accident, a fall from height, or a sporting injury may indicate osteoporosis, bone cancer, or domestic violence. It takes a tremendous amount of force to break a healthy femur. Where on the femur bone the break occurs, and the type of fracture that results from the break can quickly determine if the injury will become a life-threatening injury that would result in a fatality if it were not treated correctly immediately. A break in the femur bone can lead to severe internal and external bleeding and complications, including DVTs and blood clot formation in the thigh veins and rupturing the artery directly, requiring the application of a tourniquet.  2. Spinal Vertebrae The spinal column comprises 33 bones called vertebrae, divided into five sections. The cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine sections, and the sacrum and coccyx bones, that all protect the spinal cord.  When a vertebral fracture occurs, it can compress the nerves running the length of the spine. Depending on the location of the fracture, a spinal fracture can affect motor and sensory function. Compression fractures can lead to severe pain, ruptured discs, and loss of height. Sometimes, it can result in partial or complete paralysis and disability. Nerve damage can lead to problems with bladder and bowel control, the sensation of touch, and the ability to feel pain or temperature extremes. 3. Skull The skull is a hard, fairly robust bone composed of four plates that fuse together as we age. The hardened fused plates protect the soft brain tissue from direct damage but do not entirely remove damage to the brain that results from injuries to the head. Patients with head injuries can develop concussions and intracranial lesions. Mild skull fractures may cause minimal trouble and heal independently, but severe skull fractures can lead to infection, brain damage, cerebrospinal fluid leak, hematoma, encephalitis, and seizures. 4. Pelvis A fracture to the pelvis can be life-threatening. The pelvis connects the spine to the hips. The kidneys, intestines, bladder, and genitals are protectively contained within the pelvic ring. The pelvis is designed specifically and is different in women and men. Fractures to the pelvic bone surface can cause injury to the organs. Severe complications can arise from pelvic fractures. Shock, internal bleeding, and organ damage may occur, and moving the organs about to access the fracture site, if required, can be surgically complex. 5. Hip Hip fractures are the worst and most common injury in the elderly. Sadly, cats and dogs tripping over their owners as they wind about their feet and ankles frequently cause the elderly to stumble and fall, resulting in fractures to their hips, pelvis, or the head of the femur that rests in the hip socket joint. Fractured hips require major surgery to repair or replace. Recovery is a long, slow process, and some never recover before they pass away. The long period of inactivity, mostly confined to a bed, can lead to the development of pressure sores that, over time, ulcerate, blood clots, muscle weakness, and other post-surgical complications. For elderly patients who have brittle bones, hip fractures are realistically life-threatening, and something they may never fully recover from that requires 24/7 full-time nursing care. 6. Wrist/Hand The wrist consists of 13 individual bones, and the hand has 27. A break in any one of the bones can affect the fluidity of hand function. Any injury to the hand or wrist is a bad fracture simply because the hands are used to do so many things, we take for granted without even realizing we are doing them. Anyone who has ever had a hand, finger, or wrist injury will quickly tell you that something as simple as rubbing your eyes, wiping your nose, or scratching some part of your body becomes an unexpected ordeal with the wrist or hand out of action.  If left untreated, wrist and hand fractures can lead to long-term consequences, such as early osteoarthritis, nerve damage, and decreased grip strength and range of motion. 7. Ankle The ankle provides stability and mobility. A fractured ankle bone needs to be immobilized and correctly realigned or surgically pinned. Weak ankles

What Is The Best First Aid For A Broken Nose

Broken Nose First Aid

#1 Broken Nose First Aid Treatment Does A Broken Nose Need To Be Treated A broken nose is one of the most instantly recognisable signs in the human body. You don’t need a medical degree or training to look at a fighter’s face and see they didn’t duck or weave out of the way fast enough to avoid having their nose broken, often more than once. Most broken noses are the direct result of intentional violence in the form of domestic or physical abuse: sports injuries and training-related accidents in combat-related sports. The rest are accidental and result from random events like toddlers headbutting parents when they look down to pull on underwear or put on shoes etc. Motor vehicle accidents, and the rare few who genuinely walk straight into a pole on the street because they are looking at their mobile phone and not paying any attention to where they are walking.   When Should You Seek Medical Treatment For A Broken Nose If the nose is not broken, or the cartilage has not been bent out of position, the person never loses consciousness, and the bleeding stops within twenty minutes. Ice packs, pain relief, and resting at home is the only treatment required in most cases unless complications arise as time passes. Broken noses tend to cause both eyes to blacken, giving the ‘raccoon eyes’ effect. Depending on the severity of the blow, the eyes may discolour slightly with no swelling and look a little greenish, or both eyes might swell up and turn five different shades of black, maroon, purple, red, and violet, weld shut for a few days until the swelling subsides. The bruising fades out to a greenish tinge before disappearing entirely two-four weeks post the event. Immediate ice pack application with three hourly reapplications for no longer than twenty minutes at a time will assist with controlling the swelling and keeping it to a minimum. Go to your nearest emergency department after receiving a blow to the nose if: You cannot stop the bleeding after twenty minutes. The nostril or nasal septum is crooked or out of place. The person has an opaque liquid draining from one or both nostrils A grape-like swelling appears inside the nose on the septum. The person loses consciousness The person stops breathing and requires CPR Vision is impaired or blurred, or the person cannot see out of one or both eyes. How Do You Diagnose A Broken Nose Your GP or medical practitioner will press gently on the outside of your nose and surrounding areas and look inside your nasal passage to check for obstructions and further signs of a broken bone or damaged cartilage. When required, using a numbing medication will make the nose less painful during the exam. X-rays and other imaging studies are usually unnecessary in most cases. However, a computerised tomography (CT) scan may be ordered if the severity of your injuries makes a thorough physical exam impossible or if your provider suspects you may have other facial fractures to the orbital bones or deep tissue injuries and sinus tube complications. Immediately apply firm but gentle pinch pressure to the top of the nasal bone to assist with controlling the bleeding. Never tilt the head backward. Keep upright so the fluid can drain naturally from the nose, not down the throat, potentially creating airway blockages or stomach disturbances that result in vomiting. Apply an ice pack or ice-cold compress to control the swelling and numb some of the pain once the bleeding has stopped. Have the person keep their head elevated, even when sleeping. Avoid blowing the nose. Gently wipe or dab away any liquid from the nostrils as it emerges. Give acetaminophen for pain.  Do not give NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or aspirin as they can naturally thin the blood and prevent blood clotting to stop the bleeding. First Aid Certification And Knowledge Having First Aid certification and knowledge is a practice whereby you learn once and retain the information for your lifetime. You can add to your basic skill set with an HLTAID014 – Provide Advanced First Aid course that teaches you more in-depth skills.  Knowing when something is a minor injury easily treated at home or in the workplace and what is a serious or even life-threatening situation is something everyone can and should know. If you have never taken a First Aid course, they have never been more affordable. There is no time like the present to jump online and check out the range of registered training organisations that specialise in providing state-of-the-art training and certification. Test your current knowledge by taking our quick Quiz. Follow Up Your Nose Injury With A GP Appointment If the swelling refuses to subside after 48 hours despite three hourly ice packs. If the nose is crooked or bent to look at. If the person cannot breathe in or out through their nose and is reduced to mouth breathing. The pain refuses to subside and increases despite pain relief. The nose keeps breaking out into a fresh round of bleeding for apparent reason. For removal of packed gauze in the nostrils. How Do GPs Stop Persistent Bleeding Noses The medical practitioner may pack the nostrils with gauze to stop a persistently bleeding nose. This serves a two-fold purpose. It stops bleeding, and it holds the septum in place so the broken nose can heal, and the cartilage can be kept straight to correct any defects caused when it was originally moved out of position by the injury. Removal of the packed gauze nostrils requires a follow-up appointment with the GP as it is not a pleasant or pain-free undertaking. The dried blood and gauze stick to the nasal hairs, and they are ultimately pulled out in the extractions practice. For a simple fracture, the medical practitioner may straighten the nose and apply a split or a bollard under the nostrils, where it is necessary to straighten out and reset the broken nose. Surgical intervention

First Aid Advice For Treating A Broken Arm

A man with broken arm in need of first aid

What Is The First Aid For A Fractured Arm Broken arms are a common occurrence in the childhood and teenage years. A broken bone anywhere on the body is called a fracture. Fractures can be hairline, greenstick fracture, or compound. Fractures to the arm require medical assessment, X-Rays, and stabilisation with the use of a cast or brace of some design that prevents movement of the broken bones while they heal. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required to pin and plate the bones into place for them to heal.  What Kind Of Broken Bone Types Are There Open Fracture The broken bone is called an open fracture if any part of the broken bone pierces the skin and can be seen poking through the tissue and protruding from the arm. It is not normal to see any of your bones sticking out through your skin. Closed Fracture The bone is broken, but the skin around the fracture is intact and cannot be seen. However, broken bones may be considered unstable and cause internal bleeding. The person may develop shock on top of the broken arm that needs to be treated. Comminuted Fracture  Refers to a bone or bones that are broken in at least two places. Typically, this type of fracture is caused by severe impact traumas like car accidents or falling from height. You will need surgical intervention to repair your bone/s and require internal mechanical pinning, plating, screws, and staples to position and hold the bones in place while they heal. Recovery can take months to a year, depending on the severity and number of fractures to the length of the bone. Greenstick Fracture Are small, slender cracks in the bone that occur in children. Their bones are more flexible than an adult’s, so they act like a green stick and fracture in the same manner. Adult bones are more like dry sticks that tend to snap completely in half when broken. Hairline Fracture The most common form of a hairline fracture is also referred to as a stress fracture. Stress fractures are typically found in the shin bones and are a common injury for soldiers. Marathon runners and parkour advocates often find them in the feet or lower leg as a result of repeated impact stress from activities such as jogging, running, and jumping with impact lands from height. Complicated Fracture Tissue, organs, and structures surrounding the fracture are injured. There may be damage to the veins, arteries, or nerves as a result of the bone breaking and piercing the surrounding tissue or organs. Avulsion Fracture This type of fracture is common in the knee and shoulder joints. Muscles are anchored to bones with connective tissue called tendons. Powerful muscle contractions can wrench the tendon free and snap off pieces of bone using brute force. Compression Fracture This occurs when two bones are forced to rub or are compressed against each other. The vertebrae in the spine often display this type of fracture. Older people, particularly those with brittle bones, a condition known as osteoporosis, or sporty types with prolapsed discs that separate the vertebrae, are at higher risk. Signs And Symptoms Of A Broken Arm Or Bone You can see the bone/s sticking out Pain and/or difficulty moving the arm A grating noise or feeling from the ends of the broken bones rubbing together Difficulty or being unable to move the limb normally Deformity, swelling, and bruising around the fracture A limb may look shorter, twisted, or bent at the wrong angle Signs of shock, particularly when a large bone is fractured like a humorous, thigh bone, hip, or pelvis. When To Call Emergency Services All fractures need to be assessed by a qualified healthcare provider, and the majority of people will be able to take themselves to their GP or local Accident and emergency Department for treatment. However, there will be cases where it is imperative that emergency services be called on 000 in Australia. The following is a list of occasions when called 000 could be lifesaving. You suspect a bone is broken in the neck, head, or back and a spinal injury has occurred. If the broken bone is the result of major MVA trauma or falling from height. The person is unresponsive, isn’t breathing, or isn’t moving. (Enact DRSABCD protocol.) The limb or joint appears deformed or is at an unnatural angle. The extremity of the injured arm or limb is numb, cold to touch, or bluish at the tip. The bone has pierced the skin and can be seen with the eyes. There is heavy internal bleeding causing excessive swelling and oedema. Gentle pressure or movement causes extreme pain. How To Provide First Aid For A Broken Arm If you are reading this and have never taken a First Aid course, now is the perfect time to jump online and check out our nationally accredited First Aid Training. Take the First Aid Quiz and see where your current knowledge lies and if you could use a refresher course as practices change as technology advances. In the case of an emergency First Aid for a broken arm is to take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help to arrive: Don’t move the person unless necessary to avoid further injury or commence CPR. Stop any control bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth, or a clean piece of clothing if access to a First Aid kit is available. Immobilise the injured area using the triangle bandage in your First Aid kit or a belt, clothing, or rope of some description to prevent further knocking or moving of the injured arm. Don’t try to realign the bone or push a bone sticking out back in unless you have been trained in reduction techniques. Apply a splint to the area above and below the fracture sites. Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort. Apply ice packs to control swelling and relieve pain.  Never apply ice

#1 Facial Fractures First Aid Treatment

Facial Fractures

Facial fractures are thankfully not a commonplace injury the majority of society will ever experience. They typically require a hefty amount of force from a secondary solid object traveling at speed, and with force and are typically the result of: