Guide To The Top 8 Injuries & First Aid Treatments
The top 8 injuries and First Aid treatments are easy to follow and replicate if you keep calm and use this guide to treat each situation.
Bleeding injuries typically occur due to a penetration wound or cutting the skin on a sharp or jiggered surface. While it might look like a lot of blood is being lost from a simple cut, unless an artery has been cut into, the amount of blood loss will be minimal once the bleeding has been controlled with pressure.
- Lie the casualty down and keep them calm and still.
- Remove any clothing obstructing the area.
- Place a sterile bandage or a clean cloth on the wound and apply firm direct pressure.
- If the wound has a protruding object, pack around the object and apply firm pressure evenly.
- If bleeding continues, apply a second pad and a tighter bandage over the wound.
- If an artery has been severed, this is a life-threatening emergency. Apply a tourniquet one hand above the severed artery and tighten until the bleeding stops.
- Call 000 and monitor the person for shock.
- Give CPR if the person becomes unresponsive, stops breathing, or ceases to have a heartbeat.
Burns typically occur due to something hot contacting the skin. Burns can be scalds from steam, hot oil, touching a hot surface, chemical burns from products, or other forms like radiation or cold injury burns. The type of burn sustained will depend on the treatment given. Cold burns relate to hypothermia-related injuries. Radiation burns to the sun and exposure to radiation. Chemical burns from products around the house, garden, or worksite.
First Aid Treatment for Burns & Scalds
- Remove the casualty from the source that caused the burn.
- If serious, elevate the legs of the victim by laying them down to prevent shock.
- Immerse the area in the cool running water for 20 minutes.
- If minor, apply a burn gel if available and suitable for the burn type.
- If serious or larger than a 20-cent piece, call 000 for emergency services.
Anyone who has received a fracture knows the pain only too well.
- Keep the casualty as still as possible.
- Control any bleeding, cover any wounds and check for other fractures.
- Immobilise the broken bone by placing a padded splint along the injured limb.
- Seek medical aid.
The RICE treatment is easy to remember. Rest. Ice. Compression. Elevation.
- Rest: Rest the injured part.
- Ice: Apply an ice pack and cold compress for 20 minutes over that area.
- Compression: support that part with an elastic compression bandage for two days.
- Elevation: Lift the limb higher than the heart and support in position on soft cushions where possible.
- Don’t rub the eye.
- To flush out foreign particles, blink several times.
- Use water or saline solution to flush out the eye
- Wash your eye with lots of water to flush out any chemicals.
- Seek further medical advice from a doctor or opthamologist.
Shock is an internal process and is invisible to the eye. It is possible for people to be in shock and for the untrained to not notice, particularly in the case of accidents where life has been lost. The person might have any physical injuries to be viewed but may be in shock and require treatment.
- Ensure the safety of all at the scene.
- Sit or lie the person down and keep them warm.
- If unconscious and otherwise uninjured, place the person on their left side in the recovery position, keep warm, reassure, and monitor.
- If the person has injuries, treat the injuries in the order of importance and then monitor and keep warm until help arrives.
Management of Full Obstruction – Choking Signs
- Coughing, wheezing, clutching at the throat,
- Unable to speak, bluish skin and lips.
- Send for help
- Give up to 5 back blows
- If not effective
- Give up to 5 chest thrusts
- If not effective
- Repeat five back blows followed by five chest thrusts until the obstruction is cleared.
Choking infants: https://firstaidcourseexperts.com.au/child-choking-first-aid/
- If the victim does not respond and you are alone, call 000.
- Chest compressions –restore blood flow with CPR
- Place your hand’s lower palm (heel) on the middle of the person’s
- chest, over the breastbone.
- Place your second hand on top of the first.
- Maintain a straight line with your elbows and shoulders precisely above your hands.
- Push down on the chest for at least 2 inches (5 cm).
- Compress at a pace of 100 to 120 compressions per minute.
Airway – open the airway.
If you’ve been trained in CPR and have conducted 30 chest compressions, use the head-tilt, chin-lift movement to open the person’s airway. Place your hand on the person’s brow and gently tilt the head back. Then, gently push the chin forward with the other hand to open the airway.
Breathing – breathe for the person
- Cover the person’s mouth with yours while pinching the nostrils.
- After giving the first rescue breath, check if the chest rises; if not,
- give the second breath. If the chest does not rise, repeat the
- head-tilt, chin-lift procedure.
- Resume chest compressions.
- Continue CPR until there are any signs of movement.
- Maintain body temperature (prevent hypothermia)
Send for an ambulance by calling 000.
First Aid Course Experts
First Aid Course Experts is an Australian RTO providing nationally accredited First Aid courses and training Australia-wide in multiple locations. With a certification in one of our many First Aid courses, you could be the person saving a life when you least expect it in the worst case and giving First Aid for less serious injuries requiring treatment.
See our easy-to-follow guide chart here that gives instant treatment instructions for the top eight situations a First Aid responder is likely to encounter. Check out our FACE Blog page to broaden your general knowledge and First Aid skills.