In Australia, the percentage of Diabetes is as follows.
- Type 1 accounts for 10% of the increasing rates in Australia
- Type 2 accounts for 85% of the increasing rates in Australia
Digging deeper, there are clear distinctions in the types of Diabetes, what is involved in each kind, and the discussion around what is being called Type 3.
What Is the Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
- Type 1 Diabetes is a chronic condition when blood sugar or glucose levels become too high due to the pancreas not producing enough hormonal insulin.
- Type 2 Diabetes is also a chronic condition when blood sugar levels become too high, creating insulin resistance.
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease, the cause of which is yet not known. What is known is that the immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that are there to produce insulin. This type cannot be modified with lifestyle choices and cannot be prevented.
Type 1: Australia has one of the highest rates in the world. It can occur at any age, and most cases develop in children, teenagers and young adults. The onset is abrupt, and the symptoms include:
- Excessive thirst and urination
- Weight loss
- Blurred vision
Type 1 is managed with the help of an insulin injection several times a day or the use of an automatic insulin pump.
Type 2 Diabetes is a chronic condition where sufferers have become less able to absorb enough insulin effectively from their pancreas after the digestion of foods and drinks. This type has some genetic factors and can be passed down through families.
Normally Type 2 develops in adults over the age of 45. However, it has become more frequent for Type 2 to appear in children, teenagers and young adults. Type 2 in 58% of cases can be prevented, or it can be majorly delayed.
While a cause is not known, sufferers who tend to modify the risk factors in their lifestyle will successfully mitigate the impact of the disease affects. Early signs include:
· Vision problems
· Foot ulcers
· Heart attacks
Ways to manage Type 2 can include:
· Regular exercise
· Healthy diet
· Weight reduction
Lifestyle changes in most Type 2 sufferers will need a kind of oral medication and/or insulin injections. Maintaining a healthy weight is a big factor for people with Type 2. A protein-rich diet low in saturated fat and food high in fibre is highly recommended. Also, 30 minutes of exercise about 4 times a week is recommended as well. Taking scheduled prescribed medications when needed and monitoring blood sugars and cholesterol levels should be monitored according to a healthcare provider.
Gestational Diabetes occurs during pregnancy, making the blood sugar levels rise during this time. This type is also on the rise, like Type 1. Gestational Diabetes is not Type 3 Diabetes.
Type 3 The Latest Edition To The Diabetes Categories
Type 3 is still being examined and researched. The Current theory suggests that insulin abnormalities are in the brain and are responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. This theory is not widely accepted and should not be confused with Type 3c Diabetes Mellitus, or T3cDM, pancreatogenic diabetes that often comes as a secondary to pancreatic diseases, involving the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas.
Type 3: According to this 2016 study, people with Type 2 Diabetes are up 60% more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease or another type of dementia, such as vascular dementia. Researchers promoting the Type 3 diagnosis suggest that the way to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s or vascular dementia is similar to the management of Type 2 by a healthy diet, exercise and medications.
COVID-19 and Diabetes
People with coronavirus who have Type 1 diabetes have been found to be 3.5 times more likely to die in hospital, and people with Type 2 are twice as likely to die from having COVID-19 when hospitalised.
Sufferers are more likely to be admitted to intensive care units. People who suffer from diabetes are prone to the severities of diseases and are more likely to experience worse outcomes from infections, including the COVID-19 virus.
Why is Type 1 Worse than Type 2 in COVID-19 Cases
Typically, people living with diabetes are prone to complications, including damage to the heart and kidneys. With Type 1, this is due to cells that make insulin being destroyed by the immune system over a long period of time. This is different for those with Type 2 as it is not a disease of the immune system, but it does compromise the immune system, and this is already known to be a big risk factor for COVID-19 complications.
Blood sugar levels are, on average, higher in people with Type 1 than with Type 2. People with diabetes who contract COVID-19 are at greater risk of worse outcomes from the virus, including death. A large and vulnerable amount of the COVID-19 population. People with diabetes have a poorer prognosis due to hyperglycaemia and comorbidities to things like hypertension, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
People with Diabetes during lockdown
During a lockdown, it is reasonable to assume that not everyone is getting exercise or being able to maintain a healthy diet. While efforts are being made to control COVID-19 cases, diabetes numbers are quietly escalating.